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The birds

The brand

The brand

The brand, czernica, scum, the black and brown ducklings are among the diving ducks. Unlike surface ducks, they swim in a perfectly horizontal position, with a deeply submerged torso and a small one, the tail protruding slightly above the water. Their heads are round and larger than other duck species, and the beak is short. Foraging, they dive and search the muddy bottom, however, they can remain under water for a long time. In order to fly, they have to run on the water, then they take off diagonally upwards. Most of the mirror is black and white, sometimes not very contrasting. In contrast to the surface ducks, the feet of diving ducks are further back, which makes them float while walking. The fingers are connected by a highly developed membrane. The first finger has a hard border.

The brand nests in the temperate climatic zones of Europe, Asia and North America. It is a migratory bird. Most European populations go to the Mediterranean regions before winter. After returning, even before the joints are thawing, form pairs. At the end of April and during May, the female builds a solid nest directly by the water, well hidden in reeds and rushes. While incubating it, it fills the nest with brown or gray fluff plucked from its belly. It can bear 7 do 12 jaj, each weighing approx 80 g. The weight of all eggs in the nest sometimes exceeds her body weight (it is 750-1000 g). After 23-24 days the chicks hatch, which the female leads to the water.

Male brands can be easily recognized by their mating attire. Even from a distance, his large brown-red head is visible, contrasting with the black chest and grayish torso (1). In flight, you can see gray wing planes and a black rump. The mirror is a whitish softly marked strip on the back of the wings (2). The female is light brown with a gray-brown coat (3). The fluff of young heads is yellowish, speckled with brown spots on the head and on the back (4). The heads feed on plant and animal food. In search of it, they dive to a depth of 1-15 m. 12-16 remain under water, and sometimes even 30 s. During foraging, between consecutive dives, they rest for 4-6 seconds. Game bird.