To raise and train the dog to be a good companion and useful helper, one should understand his psyche, and on the other - which is much more difficult - to find a way to express his will in a way that he understands. The dog's intelligence is expressed in its reactions that reflect independent thinking.
It does not mean, however, to make the process of thinking psi, i.e.. relationship between association and stimulus, which will trigger this association, always had the same course as in humans. Besides, it is important to remember, that a lot, if not most of the dog's activities are based on instincts. Domesticated animals retained various instinctive reflexes, which in their ancestors were deliberate, but in this lifetime they are completely unnecessary. Not wanting to expand on this topic, I will limit myself to two examples, widely known and often cited.
The dog has a habit of burying its droppings more or less thoroughly. The wild ancestors did this, perhaps in order to cover their tracks from their enemies. Other zoopsychologists also report others, equally plausible explanation, that dogs in the wild dealt with their families (pack) specific hunting grounds. Marked their boundaries with excretions and perhaps for a clearer marking of "his."” the area helped themselves by digging up the excrements.
Kładąc się do snu na podłodze pies kręci się w kółko przez dłuższą chwilę, jak gdyby zgniatając w ten sposób stepowe trawy, wśród których słał swe legowisko jego dziki przodek. Także i to zjawisko bywa inaczej tłumaczone, jako pewnego rodzaju gimnastyka odprężająca przed ułożeniem się do snu.
Dziś, gdy pies żyje w zmienionych warunkach, obie te czynności są bezużyteczne, a jednak przetrwały one jako przejawy instynktu przez tysiące lat. Człowiek, wychowując psa, uses all his instincts and tries to use them for his own benefit. Training is easy, when it is adapted to the dog's innate reflexes, difficult or fruitless, when man's intentions towards an animal contradict them. I will come back to this topic in the second part - “Practical tips on how to learn and raise a dog”.
To understand the dog's psyche, must be taken into account, that his wild ancestor, unlike, for example,. from a cat or a fox, he always lived in a crowd, just like the horse, cattle and other herd animals. Gromadę albo stado psów nazywamy sforą, a jedną z najważniejszych cech charakteru psa określamy instynktem sfory. Instynkt ten jest obok instynktu samozachowawczego niewątpliwie najsilniejszym bodźcem w postępowaniu i zachowaniu psa. Pies udomowiony, pozbawiony swych naturalnych towarzyszy, stwarza sobie sforę zastępczą w nowym otoczeniu. Na tym opiera się najistotniejsza dla nas psia ,,cnota” — wierność, czyli przywiązanie do pana.
Ponieważ dzicy przodkowie psa byli ruchliwi i przenosili się z miejsca na miejsce, so the dog today also attaches more to its companion — human than to home. That's why it's easy to get along with a new apartment, as long as the members of his replacement pack are with him. The cat behaves differently, outside the heat period, he is not social and tends mainly to his hunting area, where he does not tolerate comrades.
In a pack of dogs, e.g.. trains, there is always a hierarchical system. At the head of the pack is a guide dog, to which all others are subordinate. In the rest of the pack, there is also a certain order of importance and significance. The young must give way to the older ones, while the elders take up defensive positions, if the youth is threatened by a foreign attacker. Similarly, the dog with the human family submits to the hierarchy prevailing in it and can sense it very quickly, who holds the position of authority, and who are the subordinates.
The educator should use this innate instinct, to impose your will on your dog immediately as the guide of the pack” With a larger group of household members, we can see clearly, that the dog is completely subordinate to only one person. The fighting races, in particular, only readily recognize one guide, and with the other companions they try to take an equal position, and sometimes even superior. Dogs such as. they merely tolerate the domestic service, completely ignoring her orders, and even often trying to impose your own will on her. However, they have other considerations for small children, seeing them as weak creatures belonging to the pack, which they look after together or as a substitute for a guide.
Apart from fights breaking out between members of one pack in the event of a power conflict, for some favored bite or for the favor of a bitch, there is “solidarity between them” facing common enemies, in defense of jointly hunted prey or threatened common interests. This is where the lord's defense instinct comes from, his household and property.