Birds orient themselves in space thanks to sight, hearing and touch, their eyesight is the most developed. The field of view of birds is very wide, panoramic; the bird spatially perceives a part of the field of view separately with each eye.
His vision is therefore binocular. Most birds have eyes on the sides of their heads, slightly protruding. They enable the bird to see more panoramic. The crested dog's vision covers a 300 ° field of view, but its spatiality in this bird is limited to 30 °. Birds of prey and kestrels, hunting live prey, they have eyes located in front. Their field of view is more limited (in pustułki to approx. 160°), but the parameters of spatial vision are much better (in the pustule 60 °). This precision allows her to judge distance accurately, when it prepares to strike at prey.
Although birds do not have auricles, their hearing is perfect. Owls and kestrels have particularly sensitive hearing. Their auditory opening is surrounded by skin folds. They also have feathers concentrically arranged around their eyes, which allows them to fish and locate even the weakest sound sources.
The touch is used by birds to search for food, to react to contact, to record temperature changes, shocks etc.. Before swallowing a trapped mouse, the kestrel touches it with tactile feathers growing near its beak. The same sensory cells are found in the beak, on the tongue and on the paws.
The sense of smell is poorly developed in most birds. It seems too, that taste does not play a major role in food choice.
In mammals, the sense of smell and hearing are the most developed. Sight is less developed. In the nasal cavity, the ethmoid bone forms the olfactory recess lined with a multilayered cylindrical epithelium, which is the seat of the sense of smell.. Most mammals have an excellent sense of smell. The sense of smell allows them to locate and examine food, recognize the terrain, locate fellow tribesmen. Mammals such as cats and anthropoids (primates - human) their sense of smell is less developed.
Mammals have perfect hearing. The outer ear is made up of the auricle of very different shapes, but always well developed. Movable auricles allow mammals to catch sounds from different places without the need to turn their heads. Deer are especially good for hearing. Aquatic mammals have very small auricles as a result of their adaptation to the aquatic environment.
The eyesight of mammals is not as perfect as that of birds. Most mammals are color blind, perceives black and white images. Color images are perceived only by certain animals, e.g.. cats. Mammals register movement, and stationary objects do not attract their attention. It is a property used by hunters. Herbivorous mammals do, just like birds, eyes placed on the sides of the head: their field of view is wide, but spatial vision is average. Carnivores have eyes located on the front of their heads. Their spatial vision is excellent, but more limited panoramic vision.
On the sides of the mouth, above the eyes, under the chin, on the throat, sensory hair occurs on the abdomen and feet (sinus). They are stiff and endowed with nerve endings. They are very sensitive to touch. They allow you to orient yourself in the open space and during e.g.. slipping into the burrow. They are also used by the animal for food testing. In addition, there are touch cells on the naked parts of the skin. For example, they focus on the boar snuffbox.