The origin of the domestic dog and the systematics of breeds.
In the zoological field, the domestic dog - Canis (canis) family 50. belongs to the order of predatory (Cainivoia), canine family (Canidae), wolf subfamilies (Caninae) and the type and subgenus of the dog (Canis). It is considered to be the earliest domesticated mammal. In modern fauna, it already exists only as a domesticated animal, so it does not exist in its original state. His progenitors were found in the dog dingo - Canis (c.) dingo Blumenbach i pariasie, but some circumstances speak for it, that the first and the second are both feral forms. Dingo, in fact, got to Australia as a companion of man, and it has just gone wild there, which the fact speaks for, that it is the only terrestrial placental animal among the Australian fauna, not counting rodents, while the dogs are pariahs, known since antiquity, they lead a lifestyle like this, what characterizes stray dogs. Pariahs are found in herds in many South Asian and North African cities and settlements, feeding on food scraps of the population. Among pariahs, there are different types that are similar, e.g.. to the wolves, hounds, greyhounds, sheepdogs and other breeds of domestic dog.
Finding wild ancestors of a domestic dog is not an easy problem to solve, if time is concerned (about 10 thousand. years), since its domestication. One researchers (e.g.. Studer) they derived the dog from a hypothetical one, a supposedly extinct and separate species of dog - Canis ferus, others considered the wolf or the wolf jackal to be his first ancestor, and still others looked for the forefathers in the coyote, lisie, and even in a hyena. Of the genus Canis, two species are most closely related to the domestic dog, belonging to the same subgenus - wolf and jackal. The existence of a close relationship between the two species and the domestic dog confirms the lakes of the fertile mating of dogs with wolves and jackals. However, in terms of anatomical details of the head, the dog looks the most like a wolf. They both have a similar one (round) pupil and the same tooth pattern.
However, the most important confirmation of the hypothesis of the dog's origin from the wolf is the fact, found relatively recently, that both species have the same number of chromosomes - 78. This cytogenetic feature is perhaps the most compelling.
One attempt to resolve the issue of the origin of individual breeds and types of domestic dogs was to establish a relationship between the structure of the entire skeleton (or parts of it) the oldest domestic fossil forms and modern living races. However, this rule was only applied to dogs from Western and Eastern Europe. In these studies, which were used fossil remains of dogs from the Neolithic to the Iron Age found in various parts of Europe, special attention was paid to the hemological features (structure of the skull). Based on the similarity to the skulls of dogs, the main European modern breeds were distinguished 7 fossil forms:
1. Dog marshy Rütimeyer - z neolitu, found in pile buildings in Switzerland;
2. Canis familiaris Inostranzevi Anuczin - z neolithic, found on Ladoga;
3. Canis familiaris Leineri Studer - from the early Neolithic, found in the Bodman area;
4. Canis familiaris Putiatini Studer - probably from the early Neolithic, found near Bologów (the structure of the skull of this fossil form is very similar to that of a dingo);
5. Canis familiaris matris ootimae Jeitteles - from the Bronze Age, found near Olomouc (Czech Republic);
6. Canis familiaris intermedius Woldrich - from the Bronze Age found in Lower Austria;
7. Canis familiaris decumanus Nehring - from prehistoric times (the type most similar to wolves).
Such a division into types distinguished on the basis of the features of the skulls of fossil forms alone cannot be considered reliable by modern science, because the adopted criteria of comparison are also appropriate for other types of dogs and many non-European breeds.